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Dates

Sugar makes working with dates easy, and has support for multiple languages.

Installing

Sugar is a library that provides many methods for different native types. A dates-only build can be created at the download page, or using the npm module sugar-date.

Usage

Sugar methods have three different modes of use: Default, Chainable, and Extended. Static and chainable methods go through the Sugar global object, while extended mode maps methods directly to native prototypes. For more information about what this means and which mode to use, see the Getting Started guide.

Live examples here are shown in Extended form, but can be toggled to Static.

Parsing

Creating dates in Sugar is handled through the create method. It accepts strings and numbers, as well as other date objects. Date parsing of strings happens automatically, and will use the current locale (English by default) if none is specified. Locale codes can be passed as the second argument.

Date.create('2012-12-31')
Date.create('July 4, 1776')
Date.create('November')
Date.create('next Wednesday')
Date.create('1776年07月04日', 'ja')
Date.create(-446806800000)

Sugar supports a wide variety of formats in many different locales. Custom formats can also be added if necessary. For more, see Date Parsing. The box below is a sample of a variety of different English formats that Sugar understands. Click on the links or use the text input:

Enter a date or click below.
  • now
  • today
  • next week
  • last year
  • the 15th
  • next Tuesday
  • 3pm Wednesday
  • in 30 minutes
  • in half a year
  • five years ago
  • yesterday at 4pm
  • half an hour ago
  • an hour from now
  • 6:30pm in three days
  • the 4th of July
  • next week Thursday
  • the end of February
  • two weeks from today
  • the end of next week
  • next Saturday at 10am
  • the first day of 2013
  • four days after Monday
  • March 15th of last year
  • two days after tomorrow
  • the last day of February
  • Sunday, January 15th 2012
  • the beginning of this month
  • the 2nd Tuesday of November
  • 5-2002
  • 8/25/1978
  • 8-25-1978
  • 8.25.1978
  • 2012-12-31
  • 2016-Mar-18
  • 22 August
  • April 2012
  • June 3rd, 2005
  • 1 Dec. 2016
  • 17760523T024508+0830
  • 1997-07-16T19:20:30+01:00
  • 08-25-1978 11:42:32.488am
  • Wed, 03 Jul 2008 08:00:00 EST

Manipulating

Dates can easily be manipulated and shifted using the methods set, advance, and rewind. In addition to accepting different forms of input, these methods also optionally can reset units lower than the most specific unit being set. reset will also reset any unit and lower (time is reset by default). Finally the unit add methods are useful for focusing on a single unit.

new Date().set({ date: 15 })
new Date().set({ date: 15 }, true)
new Date().advance({ months: 6 })
new Date().rewind('6 days', true)
new Date().rewind(5, 2)
new Date().reset()
new Date().reset('month')
new Date().addDays(6)

The following methods all modify the date:

Name Description
set Sets multiple date units. Can optionally reset the date.
advance Shifts the date forward. Can optionally reset the date.
rewind Shifts the date backward Can optionally reset the date.
reset Resets any date unit and lower units (time is reset by default).
addYears Adds n years to the date.
addMonths Adds n months to the date.
addWeeks Adds n weeks (7 days) to the date.
addDays Adds n days to the date.
addHours Adds n hours to the date.
addMinutes Adds n minutes to the date.
addSeconds Adds n seconds to the date.
addMilliseconds Adds n milliseconds to the date.
beginningOfDay Moves the date to the beginning of the day.
beginningOfWeek Moves the date to the beginning of the week as defined by the current or passed locale.
beginningOfISOWeek Moves the date to the Monday of this week (ISO8601).
beginningOfMonth Moves the date to the beginning of the month.
beginningOfYear Moves the date to the beginning of the year.
endOfDay Moves the date to the end of the day.
endOfWeek Moves the date to the end of the week as defined by the current or passed locale.
endOfISOWeek Moves the date to the end of Sunday of this week (ISO8601).
endOfMonth Moves the date to the end of the month.
endOfYear Moves the date to the end of the year.
setWeekday Alias for setDay.
setISOWeek Sets the ISO week number (of the year) as defined by ISO8601.

Comparing

Sugar adds methods beginning with the is prefix that allow dates to be compared or tested against different criteria. The is method itself will directly compare dates with a margin of error. When passed a string, it will also intelligently use the precision implied in the input. For example, passing "Oct 21st 2015" will match anything that falls within the entire day, however passing new Date(2015, 9, 21) will match only that exact moment (with an optional margin for error).

new Date().is('November 2016')
new Date().isBefore(lastWeek)
new Date().isAfter(nextWeek)
new Date().isBetween(lastWeek, nextWeek)
new Date().isThisYear()
new Date().isSunday()
new Date().isWeekday()
new Date().isFuture()

Full list of date comparison methods:

Name Notes
is Directly compares the first argument, implying precision when using a string format.
isAfter True if the date falls after the first argument.
isBefore True if the date falls before the first argument.
isBetween True if the date falls between the first two arguments.
isLastWeek Locale dependent.
isThisWeek Locale dependent.
isNextWeek Locale dependent.
isLastMonth
isThisMonth
isNextMonth
isLastYear
isThisYear
isNextYear
isLeapYear
isToday
isYesterday
isTomorrow
isSunday
isMonday
isTuesday
isWednesday
isThursday
isFriday
isSaturday
isFuture
isPast
isWeekday True if the date is either Saturday or Sunday.
isWeekend True if the date is Monday-Friday.
isValid True if the date does not have an internal value of NaN.

Unit Operations

Performing a subtract operation - on two dates will give the relative distance between them in milliseconds, but this is often required to be in a different unit. Sugar provides the methods unitsSince, unitsAgo, unitsUntil, and unitsFromNow to return time differences in any unit required.

yesterday.hoursAgo()
jan.hoursUntil(feb)
today.minutesSince(yesterday)
firstOfNextMonth.daysFromNow()

Full list of methods:

Name
millisecondsSince
secondsSince
minutesSince
hoursSince
daysSince
weeksSince
monthsSince
yearsSince
millisecondsAgo
secondsAgo
minutesAgo
hoursAgo
daysAgo
weeksAgo
monthsAgo
yearsAgo
millisecondsUntil
secondsUntil
minutesUntil
hoursUntil
daysUntil
weeksUntil
monthsUntil
yearsUntil
millisecondsFromNow
secondsFromNow
minutesFromNow
hoursFromNow
daysFromNow
weeksFromNow
monthsFromNow
yearsFromNow

Formatting

Sugar allows multiple ways to convert dates to a string in different formats. The format method supports two types of tokens: LDML, which are more intuitive and easy to remember, as well as strftime, which are found in a variety of programming languages. In addition to allowing output in a user defined format, four preset format types also exist: short, medium, long, and full. The short format presents only the date in a numeric format. Medium uses a longer, word-based format. Long adds the time to this format. Full adds to this the weekday. The major advantage to these formats is that they exist on all locales and can be quickly used without knowing the details of date formatting in those languages.

Finally, relative date strings can also be output using the methods relative and relativeTo. These methods will automatically choose the appropriate unit, for example minutes for a date less than an hour ago.

new Date().format('{hh}:{mm}')
new Date().format('%H:%M')
new Date().short()
new Date().medium()
new Date().long()
new Date().full()
hourAgo.relative()
yesterday.relative()
jan.relativeTo(mar)

Full list of formatting methods:

Name Description
format Outputs the date in a user specified format. Uses LDML or STRF tokens.
short Outputs the date in the short format.
medium Outputs the date in the medium format.
long Outputs the date in the long format.
full Outputs the date in the full format.
relative Outputs a string in units relative to the current date ("ago" or "from now").
relativeTo Outputs a string in units relative to another date.

strftime tokens

Token Value
%a Abbreviated day of the week (Sun)
%A Full day of the week (Sunday)
%b Abbreviated month name (Jan)
%B Full month name (January)
%c Common timestamp format (Thu Aug 5 2010 2:03 PM)
%C Century as 2 digit string (20)
%d 2-digit day of the month with 0 ("05")
%D American month first slash format (08/05/12)
%e 2-digit day of the month with space (" 5")
%F Common datestamp format (2010-08-05)
%g ISO8601 week year (2 digits)
%G ISO8601 week year (4 digits)
%h Abbreviated month name (Jan)
%H 2-digit hours in 24-hour format (13)
%I 2-digit hours in 12-hour format (01)
%j Day of the year (365)
%m 2-digit month
%M 2-digit minutes
%p AM/PM (uppercase)
%P am/pm (lowercase)
%r 12 hour clock time with seconds (02:03:02 PM)
%R 24 hour clock time without seconds (14:03)
%S 2-digit seconds
%T 24 hour clock time without seconds (14:03:02)
%u ISO8601 day of the week (Sunday = 7)
%U 2-digit week number (First Sunday of year = 01, prev = 00)
%V 2-digit ISO-8601 week number. First week of the year has at least 4 weekdays, Monday is the start of the week
%w Day of the week (Sunday = 0)
%W 2-digit numeric week of the year. First Monday is the first week
%x Locale based representation of the date (ex. 08/05/2010)
%X Locale based representation of the time (ex. 2:03 PM)
%Y 4-digit year

LDML tokens

Token Value
{ms} Milliseconds
{S} Milliseconds
{SSS} 3-digit milliseconds
{s} Seconds
{ss} 2-digit seconds
{seconds} Seconds
{minutes} Minutes
{m} Minutes
{mm} 2-digit minutes
{hours} Hours (12 hour clock)
{h} Hours (12 hour clock)
{hh} 2-digit hours (12 hour clock)
{hours} Hours (12 hour clock)
{H} Hours (24 hour clock)
{HH} 2-digit hours (24 hour clock)
{date} Date
{d} Date
{dd} 2-digit date
{do} Ordinal date (5th)
{dow} Lowercase abbreviated day of the week (sun)
{Dow} Abbreviated day of the week (Sun)
{e} Numeric day of the week (1)
{eo} Ordinal numeric day of the week (1st)
{weekday} Lowercase day of the week (sunday)
{Weekday} Day of the week (Sunday)
{D} Day of the year (365)
{DDD} 3-digit day of the year (365)
{full} A full format specific to the locale
{gg} 2-digit week year
{gggg} 4-digit week year
{GG} 2-digit ISO8601 week year
{GGGG} 4-digit ISO8601 week year
{long} A long format specific to the locale
{M} Numeric month
{MM} 2-digit numeric month
{medium} A medium format specific to the locale
{month} Lowercase month name (january)
{Month} Month name (January)
{mon} Lowercase abbreviated month name (jan)
{Mon} Abbreviated month name (Jan)
{Mo} Ordinal month (1st)
{yy} 2-digit year (10)
{yyyy} 4-digit year (2010)
{year} 4-digit year (2010)
{Q} Quarter
{short} A short format specific to the locale
{stamp} A timestamp format specific to the locale
{t} AM/PM as 1 lowercase letter (a/p)
{T} AM/PM as 1 uppercase letter (A/P)
{tt} am/pm
{TT} AM/PM
{time} Time string specific to the locale
{w} Locale based week number
{ww} 2-digit locale based week number
{wo} Ordinal locale based week number
{W} ISO8601 week number
{WW} 2-digit ISO8601 week number
{Wo} Ordinal ISO8601 week number
{X} Unix timestamp (seconds)
{x} Unix timestamp (milliseconds)
{Z} Timezone offset with colon (+09:00)
{ZZ} Timezone offset without colon (+0900)

Numbers

The Sugar date module also defines a number of useful methods on numbers, as well. The most handy are the unit shortcuts, which take the number as a unit of time and convert them to milliseconds. Numbers also have the methods unitsBefore, unitsAgo, unitsAfter, and unitsFromNow as shortcuts. Note that these unit methods can also be called in their singular form.

Finally, the duration method will return a string similar to relative, taking the number as millseconds and converting to the unit most appropriate.

(1).day()
(5).days()
(1).hourAgo()
(10).hoursAgo()
(mar - jan).duration()

Full list of methods mapped to numbers:

Name Notes
duration Takes the number as milliseconds and returns a localized string.
milliseconds
seconds
minutes
hours
days
weeks
months Ambiguous as a unit. Considered here to be 30.4375 days.
years
millisecondsBefore
secondsBefore
minutesBefore
hoursBefore
daysBefore
weeksBefore
monthsBefore If the date falls on a day that doesn't exist, it will be shifted into the previous month.
yearsBefore
millisecondsAfter
secondsAfter
minutesAfter
hoursAfter
daysAfter
weeksAfter
monthsAfter If the date falls on a day that doesn't exist, it will be shifted into the previous month.
yearsAfter
millisecondsAgo
secondsAgo
minutesAgo
hoursAgo
daysAgo
weeksAgo
monthsAgo If the date falls on a day that doesn't exist, it will be shifted into the previous month.
yearsAgo
millisecondsFromNow
secondsFromNow
minutesFromNow
hoursFromNow
daysFromNow
weeksFromNow
monthsFromNow If the date falls on a day that doesn't exist, it will be shifted into the previous month.
yearsFromNow  

Locales

Sugar supports 17 major locales. These can be added separately or included in the build via the downloads page. Locales contain various information including parsing and output of both static and relative formats. Once included, locales can either be set globally via the setLocale method, or passed as a code to methods such as isLastWeek which are locale dependent. Additionally, any method such as create that accepts an options object will accept a locale code in its place.

Date.create('1776年07月04日', 'ja')
new Date().relative('es')
Date.setLocale('fr');

Locale related methods:

Name Notes
getLocale Returns the locale for the first argument or the current locale if none is passed.
getAllLocales Returns all locales as an array of objects.
getAllLocaleCodes Returns all locale codes as an array of strings.
setLocale Sets the current locale.
addLocale Allows new locales to be defined.
removeLocale Removes a locale from the list of known locales.

Timezones

As many developers know, Javascript does not natively provide support for handling timezones (all Javascript dates are local to their environment). Handling this properly is complex, and falls outside the scope of Sugar. However, special options are included that allows Sugar to play nicely with other libraries designed for this purpose. Specifically, the newDateInternal option allows dates created internally by Sugar to be transformed to simulate being in a different timezone.

Timezone abbreviations such as "(PST)" are allowed when parsing time strings in Sugar, however the timezone information is simply discarded.

UTC Time

Although Sugar does not handle timezones directly, it does provide a few methods that make working with dates intended to be in UTC easier. First, methods such as create that allow an options object will accept an option fromUTC that indicates that the incoming string is in UTC time. This is most useful when reading in dates from a server, which are often standardized to UTC time.

Additionally, the method setUTC (which also exists as an option of the same name) will set an internal flag on a date telling Sugar to use UTC-based methods such as getUTCHours internally when handling the date. This can be useful if dates need to be output as UTC. Note that native methods like getHours still return local values.

Date.create('October 21, 2015')
Date.create('October 21, 2015', { fromUTC: true })
Date.create('today').long();
Date.create('today', { setUTC: true }).long();

List of UTC related methods:

Name Description
isUTC Returns true if the date has no timezone offset.
setUTC Sets a flag on the date telling it to use UTC methods internally.
getUTCOffset Returns a string representation of the offset (+0900, etc).
getUTCWeekday Alias for native getUTCDay.

ISO-8601

Sugar natively supports ISO-8601 as one of its core formats. Most modern browsers can also parse this format, however inconsistencies exist with dates that don't specify a timezone offset (either Z or +-hh:mm). To ensure compatibility, dates such as server timestamps should always supply an offset. If they do not, Sugar will correctly parse these formats as local time (as per ISO-8601), however be aware that this may differ from native parsing (new Date). If UTC time is required, fromUTC will force the date to be parsed as UTC time, and should be used.

Ranges

The Sugar range module provides a lightweight, conventient way to handle a date range that has a distinct start and end. Date ranges can be compared, combined, and iterated over.

The date range is created through the Date.range method, passing a start and end value. These values may be strings, which will be forwarded to the create method, numbers for timestamps, or date objects. The date range constructor also accepts a single string in the forms:

Format
START to END
from START until END
DATE from START until END
DATE for DURATION
for DURATION on DATE
for DURATION starting DATE
for DURATION starting at TIME
DATE at TIME for DURATION

Range methods appear in the API reference and can be included or excluded in custom builds, however they differ from standard Sugar methods in that they are always called as instance methods on range objects, and never as static methods.

Ranges will accept a start value greater than the end. In this case iteration methods will count down instead of up. Other methods will function identically.
Sugar.Date.range(today, tomorrow).hours()
Sugar.Date.range('Sunday', 'Tuesday').days()
Sugar.Date.range('Tuesday from 1pm to 6pm').hours()
Sugar.Date.range('tomorrow at 5pm for 2 hours').days()
Sugar.Date.range('this weekend from 5:30 to 6:20').minutes()
Sugar.Date.range('5 hours starting at 3:15 on Tuesday').minutes()
Sugar.Date.range('for 5 days starting Wednesday').days()